Vermitechnology by Vermiculture
-: INTRODUCTION : -
“Vermitechnology” is the process by which organic material is feed to a special types of worm species with the purpose of converting the organic material into increased worm biomass and ‘Bio-compost’ (end product after the conversation) is the excreta from worms and has use as a plant growth medium and Bio-fertilizers as soil conditioner.
The use of “Vermitechnology” as a method for the stabilization of Organic Solid & Sewage sludge wastes has been mooted for the past 50 years. Considerable work on the stabilization process and the value of the ‘Bio-compost’ by-product has been carried out)
The driving force behind the introduction of “Vermitechnology”, or other reuse processes, is the global recognition of the need to recover organic material and return this to the soil. Legislation is being enacted to prevent the dumping of organic material to land fill. Simultaneously, the cost structures of dumping are increasing and from now we should becoming more aware of the need to change our practices to halt and reverse the degradation of their soils.2. What can be ‘Bio-Composted’?
Systems have been installed on a number of sites, the largest being a 400m3/week capacity facility at Redland in Brisbane Queensland. The above project was awarded on the basis of lower cost, superior process and greater end product potential. Earthworms in the process of ‘Bio-conversation’ of Organic Sludge to Bio-Fertilizer (Bio-compost) eat up their dad bacterial bio-mass and heavy metals and extricating in to non-toxic manure. These earthworms has the capacity to absorb even metals like Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb etc in their body tissue.
some common question and answers for the process of “Vermitechnology”
1. What is Vermitechnology process (Bio-compost) ?
Bio-Conversation of organic waste is a natural biological process, carried out under controlled conditions, which converts organic material into a stable humus-like product called Bio-compost. During the composting process, various microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi, break down organic material into simpler substances. ‘Bio-Composting’ is an aerobic process with the help of special type of verms in the process to maintain oxygen level during aeration process, because the microorganisms require oxygen to do their work.
‘Bio-Composting’ has the potential to manage all of the organic material in the waste stream which cannot otherwise be recycled. Some examples of organic material that can be composted include food scraps, leaves and yard wastes, agricultural crop residues, paper products, sewage sludge and wood.
3. Can ‘Bio-composting’
manage all our wastes?
Since approximately 50% of the waste stream is organic matter, ‘Bio-composting’ can play an important role in the integrated waste management plans of any community. However, the remainder of the waste stream (such as items made of plastic, glass, metals, ceramics and rubber) cannot be composted.4. What are the benefits of a
successful ‘Bio-composting’ program?
In addition to diverting a large proportion of the organic waste stream away from disposal, an effective ‘Bio-composting’ program can produce a high quality soil amendment with a variety of end uses. Diverting organic wastes from landfill sites helps to conserve landfill space and to reduce the production of leach ate and methane gas (both of which add to the cost of operating a landfill).
5. What steps can be taken to ensure that a facility produces high quality ‘Bio-compost’?
The most important step in producing a high quality ‘Bio-compost’ is to control the quality of the material entering the process. This is most often achieved through source separation. Source-separated organics are those organic wastes which have been separated from potential contaminants prior to collection. Other contaminants can be removed through a pre-processing stage or by screening the final compost. Finally, the composting process itself can determine some characteristics of the final ‘Bio-compost’, such as maturity / physical & chemical characteristics and particle size.
END USES FOR ‘BIO-COMPOST’
6. Are there markets and end uses for ‘Bio-compost’?
‘Bio-Compost’ can be used in many applications depending on the quality produced and the quality of the product. High quality ‘Bio-compost’ is being used in agriculture, horticulture, landscaping and home gardening. Medium quality ‘Bio-compost’ can be used in applications such as erosion control and roadside landscaping. Even low quality ‘Bio-compost’ can be used as a landfill cover or in land reclamation projects.
7. Is ‘Bio-Compost’ a Bio-fertilizer?
‘Bio-Compost’ can contain varying amounts of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. However, the concentrations of these nutrients in compost are usually lower than those found in common fertilizers.
‘Bio-Compost’ is more properly described as a soil amendment or soil conditioner which returns valuable organic material to the soil. In addition, ‘Bio-compost’ does benefit the soil be improving soil structure, aeration and water retention.
Very Large Scale “Vermitechnology” offers an ecologically and commercially sustainable alternative to decompose the organic waste in to Bio-Fertilizer and the major advantages are:
A pollution free process. It produces no odor or leach ate.
Capable of being installed within the grounds of a treatment plant eliminating transport of raw sludge;
Could be used to process other organic wastes generated in the region;
Reduction in volume with Low energy consumption
Small amount of operation attention and skills required
Increase in nutrient value of converted sludge.
Produces a higher value by product as ‘Bio-compost (Bio-Fertilizer). This t is of course 100% organic and can be 5-11 times more powerful than chemical fertilizer.
Thus the treatment methods for solid waste are used to reduce the mass or volume and to achieve one or more of the following objective :
Reduction in volume of required land for filing solid waste.
Improvement of its acceptability in the terms of ‘Environmental awareness’ in common people.
Reduction in the transport cost.
Minimization of overall cost.
For Industrial Application :
Textile Solid Waste.
Dairy Solid waste.
Municipal Solid Waste.
Pharmaceuticals Solid Waste.
Increase in the nutrient value as By product of such process :
[A] In the process of ‘Bio-composting’ the earthworm release other minerals like Ca, MG, K, N, P, and increase the nutrient value of converted Organic Sludge.
[B] The University of Florida ran an analysis of a soil from an earthworm bed giving the following results. The values are the total amounts present in the converted sludge.
Percentages of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in converted sludge.
Phosphorus (P) 0.67%